Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

Water

Summary for Trichlorofluoromethane (FC-11)

A Public Health Goal (PHG) of 0.7 mg/L (700 ppb) for trichlorofluoromethane (FC-11) is developed. The current California Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for FC-11 in drinking water is 0.15 mg/L (150 ppb). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has not developed a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). FC-11 has had a variety of applications in industry and in consumer products, but as of 1997, further production was banned in the United States (U.S.). Use of FC-11 is on the decline, and as stocks are depleted, new emissions may eventually be eliminated. FC-11 is detected globally in ambient air, and was detected in small and large water systems in California during 1986 to 1987 at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 19.45 m g/L. Toxic effects of FC-11 include cardiac and pulmonary disturbances (e.g., cardiac arrhythmias, tachycardia and hypotension) and changes in respiratory rate, minute volume, tidal volume and pulmonary compliance. Other effects include hepatic lesions, central nervous system dysfunction, skin and eye irritation and inflammation. Chronic exposure experiments in animals were negative for carcinogenicity. No information on the possible reproductive, teratogenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic effects in humans was found in the available literature. No sensitive populations were identified. There are no data suggesting increased sensitivity for infants and children. A lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) of 1,802 mg/kg-day for liver effects and changes in blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen) was identified from a subchronic inhalation study in dogs. Using this subchronic inhalation LOAEL, a PHG for FC-11 of 0.7 mg/L (700 ppb) is calculated.

 
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